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Evaluations carried out under the MEAS project can address a wide range of topics, from detailed benefit-cost analysis needed to document returns to and make the case for further MEAS investments, to evaluations on the impacts of specific technologies (e.g., ICTs), or field methodologies (e.g., Farmer Field School).  Appropriate to the selected target, evaluations can be carried out at various scales, from sub-regional, down to the project, or even project-component level.  

Report prepared by:
Vickie Sigman
Published March 2016

Pigeonpea in Mozambique: An Emerging Success Story of Crop Expansion in Smallholder Agriculture

Report prepared by: 
Tom Walker, Said Silim, Benedito Cunguara, Cynthia Donovan, P. Parthasarathy Rao, Manuel Amane, and Moses Siambi 
Published September 2015

            (with focus on Esoko, Ghana) (click to read or download PDF by scrolling to bottom of this page)

   Report prepared by: Erin McGuire, Mark Bell, Amanda Crump (University of California Davis)
   Published August 2015 

Integrated Contract Broiler Farming: An Evaluation Case Study in India
Full Report (click to read)
Summary Paper (click to read)

Dr. PVK Sasidhar and Dr. Murari Suvedi evaluated integrated contract and non-contract broiler farming systems in India’s Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh states with the following research questions:
  • Do contract and non-contract farmers incur significantly different production and marketing costs and earn different marketing margins? 
  • Does the provision of extension advisory services (EAS) by private companies enable contract farmers to make better profits than non-contract farmers? 
  • Have assured markets, competitive price and guarantee against risk resulted in successful value chain development through contract broiler farming (CBF)? 
  • Are the value chain development and provision of EAS by private CBF companies really win-win situations for both integrators and farmers, or are these a socially acceptable way of exploiting the farmers? 
The study applied Bennett’s hierarchy of evaluation model by adapting sets of methods. Through individual surveys, this hierarchy evaluates CBF and non-contract broiler farming (NCBF) systems, beginning at the bottom step with inputs and progressing to the top-end results. The study employs strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis and focus group discussion (FGD) to supplement the survey data. The data, collected in 2014 from the three states, came from in-depth personal interviews with 120 contract and 120 non-contract broiler farmers and the focus group discussion with stakeholders.

Integrating Nutrition in Farmer Field Schools in Eastern Africa
              - Full Report (click to read)
              - Summary Paper (click to read)

Eastern and Central Africa continue to face acute and chronic food and nutrition insecurity. Combined with a high incidence of HIV, food security continues to affect the nutrition and health status of poor households. Currently there are many global initiatives that seek to increase the link between agricultural development and human nutrition. In the past, strategies to combat malnutrition have tended to be largely health-based. However, there is growing recognition of the vital importance of an expanding agriculture’s purview to include nutrition objectives, particularly in agricultural extension and training. The adoption of participatory extension approaches, such as the Farmer Field School (FFS), provides additional opportunities to move agricultural development beyond a customary focus on productivity and yields to an approach that can more effectively contribute to improved nutritional outcomes. 

Evaluation of the Experiences of Small-Scale Producers with Multiple Public-Private Partnerships in Produce Production and Marketing Organizations in Kenya
             - Full Report (click to read)

Extension and advisory services (EAS) by private and public extension services providers (ESPs) can help improve food security, income generation, poverty alleviation and development. These services particularly benefit smallholder subsistence farmers. 

This study explores EAS approaches employed by the private and public sectors and their impacts on sustainable agricultural development among smallholders.

The survey covered five out of the eight provinces in Kenya. The smallholder farmers and ESPs represented 86 percent and 90 percent, respectively, of the target respondents. The study covered farmers who had been involved in production and marketing for over 10 years and ESPs who had worked with smallholder farmers for more than two years. The National Agricultural Sector Extension Policy (NASEP) set the guidelines for the survey.

The study found that smallholder subsistence farmers are highly dependent on a wide range of extension advisory services (EAS). Nevertheless, there are, as yet, no national legal and policy frameworks around EAS concerning, for example, commercial farming, structured and harmonized extension approaches and duplication of services. It is highly recommended that the government develop and implement national policies for EAS.

The study further recommends the development of standard ESP approaches for dealing with pests, diseases and safe use requirements because these are the most critical issues influencing gross productivity and profit margins for smallholders. The project could start by targeting a number of produce production and marketing organizations established by smallholder farmers and eventually be up-scaled to cover local market days. On-farm demonstrations have been conducted over the years, but “plant clinics” could be very attractive to smallholder farmers and benefit a larger percentage of the population.


Assessment of Extension and Advisory Methods and Approaches to Reach Rural Women (Led by Dr. Tahseen Jafry, Glasgow Caledonian University, United Kingdom, conducted throughout 2013) 

  • Examples from Malawi – (prepared by Dr. Tahseen Jafry, Glasgow Caledonian University, Dr Boyson Moyo and Lessah Mandoloma, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Malawi. Published March 2014).
  • Examples from Kenya – (prepared by Dr. Tahseen Jafry, Glasgow Caledonian University, Dr. Ann Kingiri and Serah Nderitu, African Center for Technology Studies, Nairobi, Kenya. Published June 2014).
  • Examples from India – (prepared by Dr. Tahseen Jafry, Glasgow Caledonian University, Dr. Rasheed Sulaiman and T.S. Vamsidhar Reddy, Center for Research in Innovation and Science Policy, Hyderabad, India. Published June 2014).
  • Examples from Bangladesh – (prepared by Dr. Tahseen Jafry, Glasgow Caledonian University, Dr. Rasheed Sulaiman and T.S. Vamsidhar Reddy, Center for Research in Innovation and Science Policy, Hyderabad, India. Published June 2014).

Evaluation of the Extension Services Provided by the National Coffee Growers Federation, FNC, in Colombia   

(Led by Dr. Miguel Gomez, Cornell University, and Ben Mueller, University of Illinois at Urbana-Illinois, conducted January-May 2013) 

Evaluation of Farmer-to-Farmer Extension 

Detailed publications

Technical Note
  • Farmer-to-Farmer Extension: Issues in Planning and Implementation. by Brent M. Simpson, Steven Franzel, Ann Degrande, Godfrey Kundhlande, Sygnola Tsafack

    • Journal Articles

Video produced by FNC on the MEAS evaluation (in Spanish)

Andrea Bohn,
Oct 25, 2014, 12:47 PM
Andrea Bohn,
Mar 28, 2016, 8:39 AM
Andrea Bohn,
Sep 8, 2015, 8:50 AM
Andrea Bohn,
Jun 15, 2015, 2:00 PM