Organization and Decentralization of EAS

Introductory presentation of the issue(s), its importance in EAS, the context and major challenges in addressing the issue(s) now and in the future


AKIS Thematic Team (2000). Decentralizing Agricultural Extension. Washington, DC, The World Bank.  http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTARD/825826-1111063678817/20431788/Decentralization.pdf  

Abstract: (partial Exec Summary)"Decentralization is potentially important to agricultural knowledge and information systems, but decentralization is not an end in itself, and successful decentralization strategies must address three challenges—establishing a national framework for decentralization, developing subsector approaches, and enhancing capacities of various participants for coproduction of decentralized goods and services." 

Research Notes: This may have been written before there was a lot of empirical evidence showing how decentralization was more difficult in practice, because it seems to assume that decentralization results in democratic control. Gives a lot of background on the different kinds of decentralization, and the reasons that decentralization is seen to be as an effective mechanism for improving ag extension.  Presents 'good practice'. Does not specifically address political implications. 

Anderson, J. and L. Van Crowder (2000). "The present and future of public sector extension in Africa: contracting out or contracting in?" Public Administration and Development 20(5): 373-384.

Anderson, J. R. (2007). Agricultural Advisory Services. Background for the World Development Report.

Baviskar, A. (2004). "Between Micro-Politics and Administrative Imperatives: Decentralisation and the Watershed Mission in Madhya Pradesh, India." European Journal of Development Research 16(1): 26-40.

Benjamin, C. E. (2008). "Legal Pluralism and Decentralization: Natural Resource Management in Mali." World Development 36(11): 2255-2276.

Larson, A. M. and J. C. Ribot (2004). "Democratic Decentralisation through a Natural Resource Lens:An Introduction." European Journal of Development Research 16(1): 1-25.

Larson, A. M. (2004). "Formal Decentralisation and the Imperative of Decentralisation 'from Below': A Case Study of Natural Resource Management in Nicaragua." European Journal of Development Research 16(1): 55-70.

Nambiro, E., J. Omiti, et al. (2006). Decentralization and Access to Agricultural Extension Services in Kenya International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference. Gold Coast, Australia

Robinson, M. (2007). "Does Decentralisation Improve Equity and Efficiency in Public Service Delivery Provision?" IDS Bulletin 38(1): 7-17.

Robinson, M. (2007). "Introduction: Decentralising Service Delivery? Evidence and Policy Implications." IDS Bulletin 38(1): 1-6.

Salazar, J. G. (2007). "Decentralisation, Politics and Service Delivery in Mexico." IDS Bulletin 38(1): 70-76.

Scoones, I. and J. Thompson "The Politics of Seed in Africa's Green Revolution: Alternative Narratives and Competing Pathways." IDS Bulletin 42(4): 1-23.

SLSA Team (2003). "7. Decentralisations in Practice in Southern Africa." IDS Bulletin 34(3): 79-96.


A summary of the history in responding to the issue(s), including the evolution of theoretical or conceptual frameworks, strategies, methodologies and techniques for addressing Decentralization


AKIS Thematic Team (2000). Decentralizing Agricultural Extension. Washington, DC, The World Bank.

Anderson, J. and L. Van Crowder (2000). "The present and future of public sector extension in Africa: contracting out or contracting in?" Public Administration and Development 20(5): 373-384.

Anderson, J. R. (2007). Agricultural Advisory Services. Background for the World Development Report.

Baviskar, A. (2004). "Between Micro-Politics and Administrative Imperatives: Decentralisation and the Watershed Mission in Madhya Pradesh, India." European Journal of Development Research 16(1): 26-40.

Benjamin, C. E. (2008). "Legal Pluralism and Decentralization: Natural Resource Management in Mali." World Development 36(11): 2255-2276.

Cousins, B. and T. Kepe (2004). "Decentralisation when Land and Resource Rights are Deeply Contested: A Case Study of the Mkambati Eco-Tourism Project on the Wild Coast of South Africa." European Journal of Development Research 16(1): 41-54.

Larson, A. M. and J. C. Ribot (2004). "Democratic Decentralisation through a Natural Resource Lens:An Introduction." European Journal of Development Research 16(1): 1-25.

Larson, A. M. (2004). "Formal Decentralisation and the Imperative of Decentralisation 'from Below': A Case Study of Natural Resource Management in Nicaragua." European Journal of Development Research 16(1): 55-70.

Odame, H. and E. Muange "Can Agro-dealers Deliver the Green Revolution in Kenya?" IDS Bulletin 42(4): 78-89.

Scoones, I. and J. Thompson "The Politics of Seed in Africa's Green Revolution: Alternative Narratives and Competing Pathways." IDS Bulletin 42(4): 1-23.
A summary of the major lessons learned (good, bad, indifferent) from this history;

Alemu, D. (2011). "The Political Economy of Ethiopian Cereal Seed Systems: State Control, Market Liberalisation and Decentralisation." IDS Bulletin 42(4): 69-77.

Anderson, J. R. (2007). Agricultural Advisory Services. Background for the World Development Report.

Benjamin, C. E. (2008). "Legal Pluralism and Decentralization: Natural Resource Management in Mali." World Development 36(11): 2255-2276.

Cousins, B. and T. Kepe (2004). "Decentralisation when Land and Resource Rights are Deeply Contested: A Case Study of the Mkambati Eco-Tourism Project on the Wild Coast of South Africa." European Journal of Development Research 16(1): 41-54.

Larson, A. M. and J. C. Ribot (2004). "Democratic Decentralisation through a Natural Resource Lens:An Introduction." European Journal of Development Research 16(1): 1-25.

Larson, A. M. (2004). "Formal Decentralisation and the Imperative of Decentralisation 'from Below': A Case Study of Natural Resource Management in Nicaragua." European Journal of Development Research 16(1): 55-70.

Odame, H. and E. Muange "Can Agro-dealers Deliver the Green Revolution in Kenya?" IDS Bulletin 42(4): 78-89.

Richards, P. (2010). A Green Revolution from below? Science and technology for global food security and poverty alleviation, Wageningen University.

Robinson, M. (2007). "Does Decentralisation Improve Equity and Efficiency in Public Service Delivery Provision?" IDS Bulletin 38(1): 7-17.

Robinson, M. (2007). "Introduction: Decentralising Service Delivery? Evidence and Policy Implications." IDS Bulletin 38(1): 1-6.

Salazar, J. G. (2007). "Decentralisation, Politics and Service Delivery in Mexico." IDS Bulletin 38(1): 70-76.

SLSA Team (2003). "7. Decentralisations in Practice in Southern Africa." IDS Bulletin 34(3): 79-96. 


Summary presentation of “best practices,” and “best prospects” for moving forward 


AKIS Thematic Team (2000). Decentralizing Agricultural Extension. Washington, DC, The World Bank.

Anderson, J. and L. Van Crowder (2000). "The present and future of public sector extension in Africa: contracting out or contracting in?" Public Administration and Development 20(5): 373-384.

Anderson, J. R. (2007). Agricultural Advisory Services. Background for the World Development Report.

Birner, R., K. Davis, et al. (2009). From “Best Practice” to “Best Fit”: A Framework for Designing and Analyzing Pluralistic Agricultural Advisory Service. Washington, DC, International Food Policy Research Institute: 4.

Larson, A. M. and J. C. Ribot (2004). "Democratic Decentralisation through a Natural Resource Lens:An Introduction." European Journal of Development Research 16(1): 1-25.

Nambiro, E., J. Omiti, et al. (2006). Decentralization and Access to Agricultural Extension Services in Kenya International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference. Gold Coast, Australia

Richards, P. (2010). A Green Revolution from below? Science and technology for global food security and poverty alleviation, Wageningen University.

SLSA Team (2003). "7. Decentralisations in Practice in Southern Africa." IDS Bulletin 34(3): 79-96.

Swanson, B. E. (2010). Changing Extension Paradigms within a Rapidly Changing Global Economy, Power Point presentation.



Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 4
Author: D. Alemu
Year: 2011
Title: The Political Economy of Ethiopian Cereal Seed Systems: State Control, Market Liberalisation and Decentralisation
Journal: IDS Bulletin
Volume: 42
Issue: 4
Pages: 69-77

Short Title: The Political Economy of Ethiopian Cereal Seed Systems: State Control, Market Liberalisation and Decentralisation

Abstract: This article explores the political and economic processes governing Ethiopian cereal seed systems. The nature of the Ethiopian agricultural sector, the historical evolution of the seed system and the seed specificities for each cereal crop have resulted in a wide range of actors with diverse linkages and policy processes. A series of economic and political drivers are identified, including top-down state-driven initiatives; agricultural liberalisation and the private sector and political-administrative decentralisation, all of which pull in different directions. It is important that the technocrats, politicians, international donors and supporters understand these political and economic drivers of change and by addressing these conflicts and contradictions, they may improve the chances of designing and implementing more technically effective and socially appropriate policies. This will help establish a vibrant seed system which offers real choices for farmers in terms of seed type, quantity, and quality and delivery time at reasonable prices.

Research Notes: Considers the politics that influence the seed distribution system and investigates " the challenges and opportunities associated with decentralised political administration and efforts to established a truly decentralised seed system." Considers what happens in the context of contrasting policy initiatives.

p. 74-"Constitutionally, Ethiopia has a strong commitment to a decentralised political–administrative system. This means the agricultural and rural development efforts are decentralised to the respective regional states under the general national policy framework." Notes challenges and opportunities

"Technology pathways in Ethiopia, with the focus on hybrid varieties and the formal seed system, are increasingly being

fashioned by global funding and special interests, sometimes resulting in a lack of involvement of wider stakeholders. Thus, there is a danger that the diverse livelihood pathways and associated agricultural technology demands of the country’s millions of smallholder farmers may not always be well served."

URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/doi/10.1111/j.1759-5436.2011.00237.x/abstract



Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 16
Author: J. Anderson and L. Van Crowder
Year: 2000
Title: The present and future of public sector extension in Africa: contracting out or contracting in?
Journal: Public Administration and Development
Volume: 20
Issue: 5
Pages: 373-384

Short Title: The present and future of public sector extension in Africa: contracting out or contracting in?
ISSN: 1099-162X
DOI: 10.1002/pad.149

Abstract: Public sector extension has come under increasing pressure to downsize and reform. Contracting out—the use of public sector funds to contract non-governmental and private service providers—is often held up as a potential tool in reform efforts. Much has been written about the possible advantages of contracting out of agricultural extension and it is being encouraged and promoted by numerous international organizations. However, a look at field experience in Africa shows that contracting out is relatively infrequent, especially compared with the reverse—contracting in—where private sector and non-governmental organizations finance public sector extension delivery. Case studies from Uganda and Mozambique indicate that on the ground attempts to come up with solutions to providing services to farmers are resulting in innovative contracting approaches and combined public and private institutional arrangements. Contracting in and public–private coalition approaches, in contrast to purely public sector extension (characterized by ineffectiveness and inefficiencies) and purely private for profit extension (which may ignore public goods and concerns), may help achieve extension services which are both demand led and which internalize public concerns such as environmental protection, food security and socio-economic equity. These coalition approaches can be improved and facilitated. They deserve greater analysis and may contribute to a better understanding of extension contracting and the roles of private and public organizations.

Research Notes: Notes that the present conventional wisdom is that governments are inefficient in providing extension services, yet I've seen in another document that a strong central government is required for implementing good decentralization practices. Seems problematic....central governments can't just be written off, and must be part of the effort to decentralize.

"The experience from the field indicates that there are a myriad of arrangements evolving between different actors and institutions supporting rural development. This article has attempted to outline some of this experience and draw some larger implications"

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pad.149


Reference Type: Report
Record Number: 1
Author: J. R. Anderson
Year: 2007
Title: Agricultural Advisory Services. Background for the World Development Report
Short Title: Agricultural Advisory Services. Background for the World Development Report
Abstract: TOC
Summary

1. Why information and advisory services are important in agricultural development
2. Historical perspectives on past interventions by governments and their external supporters  (including the World Bank)
3. New approaches around the world in recent times; their rationales and achievements
3.1 Classifying new approaches
3.2 Reform of governance structures
3.3 Change in advisory methods
3.4 In search of “best fit” approaches
4. Evidence on impacts of new approaches: a critical review of the formal, grey and emerging  literature that bears on this chronically under-researched field
4.1 Issues in assembling evidence on impact of extension
4.2 Impact of new governance structures
4.3 Impact of new advisory methods
5. Conclusion: The Way Forward

Research Notes: Provides history of extension
Deals with how to fund
Deals with how to organize and decentralize (seems to favor privatization.)
Notes that data meant to rationalize the existence of extension is often poor, and that more must be done to show the impact on economic returns

The Extension Research Group at IFPRI has recently proposed a framework for addressing this knowledge gap and learning efficiently about “best-fit” solutions. The framework “disentangles” the major characteristics of agricultural advisory services: (1) governance structures, (2) capacity, management and organization, and (3) advisory methods. Four sets of frame conditions are identified that need to be considered when deciding on these characteristics: (1) the policy environment, (2) the capacity of potential service providers, (3) the type of farming systems and the market access of farm households; and (4) the nature of the local communities, including their ability to cooperate. The framework suggests an impact-chain approach to analyze the performance and impact of advisory services.

It's a well-organized document with seemingly a lot of applicable information for the MEAS book.

URL: http://www.g-fras.org/fileadmin/UserFiles/Documents/Background_Information/Agricultural-Advisor-Services_WDR_2008.pdf


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 13
Author: A. Baviskar
Year: 2004
Title: Between Micro-Politics and Administrative Imperatives: Decentralisation and the Watershed Mission in Madhya Pradesh, India
Journal: European Journal of Development Research
Volume: 16
Issue: 1
Pages: 26-40

Short Title: Between Micro-Politics and Administrative Imperatives: Decentralisation and the Watershed Mission in Madhya Pradesh, India
ISSN: 09578811
Keywords: RESOURCE management
PUBLIC utilities
PUBLIC administration
WATERSHED management
DECENTRALIZATION in government
PRADESH (India)

INDIA

Abstract: This essay examines the Watershed Development Mission in Madhya Pradesh, India, where the pressure to show tangible 'success', combined with the bureaucratic imperative to retain control, subverts the decentralised structure of participatory resource management. Project and funding imperatives have helped to undermine the very processes that they purport to support. Yet decentralised management is not simply empty rhetoric, but rather its success or subversion depends on the active collaboration of the state government and villagers. Villagers and lower-level bureaucrats bring diverse agendas and perspectives to development projects, co-opting new institutions and assimilating them into ongoing individual and collective projects of social survival and gain. In conclusion, ways to improve accountability in resource management are suggested. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of European Journal of Development Research is the property of Palgrave Macmillan Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Notes: Article

Accession Number: 13871105; Baviskar, Amita 1; Affiliations: 1: Ciriacy-Wantrup Fellow, Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley; Issue Info: Mar2004, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p26; Thesaurus Term: RESOURCE management; Thesaurus Term: PUBLIC utilities; Thesaurus Term: PUBLIC administration; Subject Term: WATERSHED management; Subject Term: DECENTRALIZATION in government; Subject: PRADESH (India); Subject: INDIA; NAICS/Industry Codes: 921190 Other General Government Support; NAICS/Industry Codes: 926130 Regulation and Administration of Communications, Electric, Gas, and Other Utilities; Number of Pages: 15p; Document Type: Article

Research Notes: P. 31 " The notion that watershed work is apolitical introduces into the mission the politics of the state in various ways: it legitimises bureaucratic control, it allows corruption and it enables collaborations between state officials and particular individuals and social groups."

Notes how decentralization policies and practices can be leveraged by saavy locals. Also notes how existing structures and institutions shape decentralization efforts.

Provides considerations for decentralization efforts.

URL: 10.1080/09578810410001688716

http://ezproxy.msu.edu:2047/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=13871105&site=ehost-live&scope=site



Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 17
Author: C. E. Benjamin
Year: 2008
Title: Legal Pluralism and Decentralization: Natural Resource Management in Mali
Journal: World Development
Volume: 36
Issue: 11
Pages: 2255-2276

Short Title: Legal Pluralism and Decentralization: Natural Resource Management in Mali
ISSN: 0305-750X

Abstract: Summary Much recent work on decentralized natural resource management has focused on the institutional arrangements that shape the balance of powers between central and local governments. It has given comparatively less attention to relationships between local government and community-level institutions. In Mali, decentralization has superimposed modern legal institutions on community institutions. The ambiguous relationships between them can undermine both the authority of nascent local governments and the performance of customary institutions. Legal pluralism—the coexistence and interaction of multiple normative orders with different sources of legitimacy and authority—helps explain the dynamic nature of local institutions under decentralization. This article examines the experiences of three Malian communities with decentralized natural resource management: one maintains autonomy from government, another engaged its local government, and a third negotiated a multi-stakeholder agreement—a local convention. They demonstrate that crafting workable relationships between communities and local government requires a pragmatic approach to negotiating and institutionalizing political space for innovation in self-governance.

Notes: doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.03.005

Research Notes: "Effective nesting involves the creation of political space to self-organize at different levels as opposed to the delineation of static, hierarchical relationships among institutions. Such space is crucial for fostering state-society synergy. In Mali and elsewhere in the Sahel, a promising and increasingly popular mechanism for creating and securing this space is the ‘‘local convention,’’ negotiated contractual arrangements among a range of stakeholders that define enforceable rules and management  principles" p 2257

Notes that research showing that decentralization contributes to improved governance is inconclusive.

"the formal governance structures and policies it has put in place have done little to resolve the tension between state and customary authority or between the administrative drive toward uniformity and control and the inherently dynamic nature of local social ecological systems." (p. 2260)

"In the absence of recognition of customary institutions, communities are limited to informal arrangements that compromise their ability to be effective and local governments are deprived of a potential resource for implementing effective NRM policy. Communities may adapt, but they are exposed to repression and predation by agents of the state." (p. 2267)

URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X08001459



Reference Type: Report
Record Number: 5
Author: R. Birner, K. Davis, J. Pender, E. Nkonya, P. Anandajayasekeram, J. Ekboir, A. Mbabu, D. Spielman, D. Horna, S. Benin and W. Kisamba-Mugerw
Year: 2009
Title: From “Best Practice” to “Best Fit”: A Framework for Designing and Analyzing Pluralistic Agricultural Advisory Service
City: Washington, DC
Institution: International Food Policy Research Institute
Pages: 4

Short Title: From “Best Practice” to “Best Fit”: A Framework for Designing and Analyzing Pluralistic Agricultural Advisory Service

Abstract: (partial intro) This policy brief provides an overview of pluralistic agricultural advisory services and presents an analytical framework that can help policy planners and extension managers to identify best fit options for financing and providing these services. The framework can also guide research projects aimed at creating empirical evidence on what works where and why. The framework focuses on (a) the design elements of a system of advisory services—that is, governance structures, capacity and management, and advisory methods—and their comparative advantages and disadvantages under different frame conditions; (b) performance measurement and quality management in the provision of agricultural advisory services; and (c) impact assessment with regard to multiple goals as well as assessment of the costs and benefits associated with different ways of providing and financing agricultural advisory services. The framework provides a tool for the design, analysis, and evaluation of agricultural advisory services that acknowledges that these services form part of a wider agricultural knowledge and innovation system.

Research Notes: Stresses the importance of adapting to circumstances and context, and that standardized models that promote 'best practices' aren't necessarily helpful. "Context" includes policy environment, governance structures, farming system, socioeconomic conditions etc, which is meant to help people understand how to consider implementing any particular extension model.


Brief, practical, provides a link to a discussion forum:
(see <www.ifpriblog.org/ifpriblog/forums/21/ShowPost.aspx>
URL: http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/rb04.pdf


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 14
Author: B. Cousins and T. Kepe
Year: 2004
Title: Decentralisation when Land and Resource Rights are Deeply Contested: A Case Study of the Mkambati Eco-Tourism Project on the Wild Coast of South Africa
Journal: European Journal of Development Research
Volume: 16
Issue: 1
Pages: 41-54

Short Title: Decentralisation when Land and Resource Rights are Deeply Contested: A Case Study of the Mkambati Eco-Tourism Project on the Wild Coast of South Africa

ISSN: 09578811

Abstract: A failed eco-tourism project in South Africa illustrates the weakness of decentralisations that place insufficient emphasis on democracy. The project promoted 'empowerment' of local communities (and entrepreneurs) and government facilitation of community 'partnerships' with private-sector investors. However, the devolution of effective powers and the accountability of local bodies to community were both neglected. Project planning failed to promote local participation,which would have allowed a clear understanding of local livelihoods and deep-seated land and resource tensions. An entrepreneurial elite attempted to capture project benefits, ordinary community members resisted. Severe conflicts erupted, stalling the project. To overcome such dynamics, democratic decentralisation requires a strong central state to provide resources for land-tenure reform and to promote the devolution of powers and the accountability of local bodies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of European Journal of Development Research is the property of Palgrave Macmillan Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Notes: Article

Accession Number: 13871107; Cousins, Ben 1; Kepe, Thembela 2; Affiliations: 1: Director, Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies, School of Government, University of the Western Cape; 2: Researcher, Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies, School of Government, University of the Western Cape; Issue Info: Mar2004, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p41; Thesaurus Term: ECOTOURISM; Thesaurus Term: ENTREPRENEURSHIP; Thesaurus Term: ECONOMIC development projects; Thesaurus Term: DOMESTIC economic assistance; Thesaurus Term: PUBLIC administration; Subject Term: DECENTRALIZATION in government; Subject: SOUTH Africa; NAICS/Industry Codes: 926110 Administration of General Economic Programs; NAICS/Industry Codes: 921190 Other General Government Support; Number of Pages: 14p; Document Type: Article

Research Notes: Democratic decentralization requires a strong central state, is one of the conclusions.

"The absence of a politics of democracy has been the key to stalling development in Mkambati. Central issues in democratic decentralisation are the establishment of downwardly accountable bodies that have appropriate powers and are composed of appropriate actors. As the Mkambati story shows, failure to explicitly address these issues can create opportunities for opportunists, resistance and intractable conflict, rather than concerted collective action in community-based development planning and natural resource management." p 52

" An emphasis on external investment and ‘community-private sector partnerships’, without a clear role for representative decision-making bodies that are accountable to their constituencies, can easily lead to elite capture" P. 52

URL: 10.1080/09578810410001688725

http://ezproxy.msu.edu:2047/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=13871107&site=ehost-live&scope=site



Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 15
Author: A. M. Larson
Year: 2004
Title: Formal Decentralisation and the Imperative of Decentralisation 'from Below': A Case Study of Natural Resource Management in Nicaragua
Journal: European Journal of Development Research
Volume: 16
Issue: 1
Pages: 55-70

Short Title: Formal Decentralisation and the Imperative of Decentralisation 'from Below': A Case Study of Natural Resource Management in Nicaragua
ISSN: 09578811

Abstract: This essay argues that decentralisation of natural resource management is a political process resisted by central government due to the feared loss of power and/or economic resources to local governments. In Nicaragua, although the formal process of power transfers largely stagnated from 1997 to 2003, decentralisation 'from below' continued to advance thanks to political pressure from civil society and municipal governments and the increasing legitimacy of local authority. At the same time, many municipal governments have little interest in resource management where there are few apparent economic benefits. Local governments, however, respond among other pressures to pressure from constituents and non-governmental organisations to take on resource-management initiatives. At both levels of government, local and grass-roots processes are necessary conditions to make formal decentralisation democratic and responsible. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of European Journal of Development Research is the property of Palgrave Macmillan Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Notes: Article

Accession Number: 13871109; Larson, Anne M. 1; Affiliations: 1: Research Associate, Center for International Forestry Research and Nitlapán Institute for Research and Development, Managua, Nicaragua; Issue Info: Mar2004, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p55; Thesaurus Term: MANAGEMENT; Thesaurus Term: ECONOMIC development projects; Thesaurus Term: MUNICIPAL government; Thesaurus Term: NONGOVERNMENTAL organizations; Subject Term: NATURAL resources; Subject Term: DECENTRALIZATION in government; Subject Term: ADMINISTRATIVE & political divisions; Subject: NICARAGUA; NAICS/Industry Codes: 926110 Administration of General Economic Programs; NAICS/Industry Codes: 924110 Administration of Air and Water Resource and Solid Waste Management Programs; Number of Pages: 16p; Document Type: Article

Research Notes: "effective democratic decentralisation – and particularly the democratic decentralisation of natural resource management – will not, and perhaps cannot, be implemented only from above."

URL: 10.1080/09578810410001688734

http://ezproxy.msu.edu:2047/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=13871109&site=ehost-live&scope=site



Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 12
Author: A. M. Larson and J. C. Ribot
Year: 2004
Title: Democratic Decentralisation through a Natural Resource Lens:An Introduction
Journal: European Journal of Development Research
Volume: 16
Issue: 1
Pages: 1-25
Short Title: Democratic Decentralisation through a Natural Resource Lens:An Introduction
ISSN: 09578811

Abstract: Introduces a series of articles on decentralization published in the 2004 issue of the "European Journal of Development Research."

(partial intro)

This volume includes case studies from Africa (Cameroon and South Africa), Asia (Indonesia, Mongolia, China and India) and Latin America (Nicaragua, Brazil and Bolivia), which address the management of water, land, forests or pasture. In addition to the particular theoretical or practical concerns of each author, the comparative framework guiding the case studies focuses attention on 1) the extent to which central governments have decentralised authority over natural resources to local governments or other sub-national entities, 2) the relations between these local-level entities and the population, and 3) the effects of these processes on local peoples and natural resources.

Notes: Article

Accession Number: 13871082; Larson, Anne M. 1,2; Ribot, Jesse C. 3; Affiliations: 1: Research Associate, Center for International Forestry Research; 2: Research Associate, Nitlapán Institute for Research and Development, Managua, Nicaragua; 3: Senior Associate, Institutions and Governance Program, World Resources Institute (WRI), Washington, DC; Issue Info: Mar2004, Vol. 16 Issue 1, p1; Thesaurus Term: ECONOMIC development; Subject Term: DECENTRALIZATION in government; Number of Pages: 25p; Document Type: Article

Research Notes: I've included this article, and a few others from the issue, but not all of them, since they mainly focus on decentralization as it applies to NRM. I was thinking that some of the issues with administrative control and defining agendas would be similar. I've picked out a few representative articles, but can get more, if it is helpful. Here's the TOC:

Democratic Decentralisation through a Natural Resource Lens:An Introduction.

Between Micro-Politics and Administrative Imperatives: Decentralisation and the Watershed Mission in Madhya Pradesh, India.

Decentralisation when Land and Resource Rights are Deeply Contested: A Case Study of the Mkambati Eco-Tourism Project on the Wild Coast of South Africa.

Formal Decentralisation and the Imperative of Decentralisation 'from Below': A Case Study of Natural Resource Management in Nicaragua.

Democratic Decentralisation and Traditional Authority: Dilemmas of Land Administration in Rural South Africa.

What Lies behind Decentralisation? Forest, Powers and Actors in Lowland Bolivia.

Closer to People and Trees: Will Decentralisation Work for the People and the Forests of Indonesia?

Decentralisation, Rural Livelihoods and Pasture-Land Management in Post-Socialist Mongolia.

Decentralisation and Accountability in Forest Management: A Case from Yunnan, Southwest China.l

The Social and Organisational Roots of Ecological Uncertainties in Cameroon's Forest Management Decentralisation Model.

User Committees: A Potentially Damaging Second Wave of Decentralisation?

Decentralising Water Resource Management in Brazil.

Decentralising Natural Resource Management: A Recipe for Sustainability and Equity?

Makes a distinction between deconcentration (administrative decentralization) and democratic decentralization. Deconcentration is a weaker form of decentralization.

"This volume, however, illustrates that the type and extent of decentralisation is not the only relevant factor in understanding how local actors will use their new powers or what outcomes these will have for local people and resources. The way in which decentralisation is implemented as well as the economic context associated with each particular natural resource, for example, also affect the kinds of choices that are made by local decision maker" (p. 4)

Problematizes participation. "In the names of ‘pluralism’ and ‘civil society’, development institutions and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) appear to be choosing to transfer powers to less-than-democratic ‘traditional’ authorities, committees and local NGOs, either due to a naive populism, an uncritical acceptance of everything ‘indigenous’, or an anti-government stance inherited from the Thatcher revolution [Ribot and Oyono, forthcoming]. The convergence of these anti-democratic tendencies is causing a potentially destructive proliferation of local institutions."

URL: 10.1080/09578810410001688707

http://ezproxy.msu.edu:2047/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=13871082&site=ehost-live&scope=site


Reference Type: Conference Paper
Record Number: 19
Author: E. Nambiro, J. Omiti and L. Mugunieri
Year: 2006
Title: Decentralization and Access to Agricultural Extension Services in Kenya
Editor: Editior
Conference Name: International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference
Conference Location: Gold Coast, Australia

Abstract: (Partial)

The form and content of decentralization has dominated development discourse and public sector reform agenda in Kenya in the last two decades. The case of agricultural extension service presents decentralization in a difficult context partly due to lack of information on its possible diverse impacts especially on resource poor farmers. This paper explores the effect of decentralization of agricultural extension on access, accountability and empowerment, and efficiency of delivering services to farmers. Secondary data, participatory research methods and primary data from a random sample of 250 farmers were used. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis and logistic regression.

Research Notes: Generally a favorable reporting of extension in Kenya.

"The policy implications of these findings suggest a need for restructuring of the extension system to favour NGOs and CBOs that have an explicit extension mandate where they have the comparative advantage in providing farmers with pertinent technical advice. Continued investments in forming and supporting farmers’ groups, is also likely to yield high returns as farmers increasingly build their capacity and ability to demand services that are compatible with their needs. However, as the extension efforts of NGOs and CBOs are largely demanddriven, the government has a crucial role to play in guaranteeing that certain populations are not deprived of such services, such as in low potential or remote areas"

URL: http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/25246/1/pp060168.pdf



Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 6
Author: H. Odame and E. Muange
Title: Can Agro-dealers Deliver the Green Revolution in Kenya?
Journal: IDS Bulletin
Volume: 42
Issue: 4
Pages: 78-89
Short Title: Can Agro-dealers Deliver the Green Revolution in Kenya?
ISSN: 1759-5436

DOI: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.2011.00238.x

Abstract: Kenya is in many ways the ‘poster child’ for Africa's new Green Revolution, with numerous public-private partnerships promoting agricultural innovation and rural entrepreneurship through a growing network of agro-dealers. Despite numerous claims that the agro-dealer model offers the best approach for delivering new seeds and other modern technologies to the country's small producers, this article highlights how reality on the ground has yet to match expectations. Drawing on surveys of agro-dealers in two contrasting agricultural districts and interviews with key informants, it shows how, despite considerable investment by a range of public and private actors, agro-dealers remain spread unevenly across the country and are inevitably concentrated in the higher potential agricultural areas. The changing structure of the Kenyan seed industry and the entry of large multinational and philanthropic players – who are focusing mainly on delivery of hybrid maize and fertilisers – are shifting this dynamic further. This approach is acting to narrow the choice of seeds and crop types to farmers in all areas.

Research Notes: Provides a reality check re decentralization, and how it is actually emerging on the ground. "Economic liberalisation policies were meant to pave the way for a market-based economy, in which the private sector would take over functions such as input distribution from the state. Private companies and urban and rural traders entered the input supply market, dismantling the

monopolistic network of public actors in input distribution in most parts of the country. However, market development has been slow due to capital constraints, complex trade and licensing arrangements and restrictive domestic laws in the seed industry. This has led to inadequate competition and high input prices, constraining the adoption of improved technologies by poor smallholder farmers, especially in low rainfall areas."

Notes the danger of driving narratives and the ways in which it flattens out the diverse requirements and agroecologies. "The implementation of NAAIAP has generated mixed results. By adopting an international narrative that links low productivity to degraded soils and lack of access to modern inputs (specifically fertilisers) and making it the national narrative in Kenya is inappropriate, since it ignores important regional agroecological and sociocultural variations. Actors in different parts of the country have different narratives about food production constraints in their regions." p. 83

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.2011.00238.x



Reference Type: Report
Record Number: 2
Author: P. Richards
Year: 2010
Title: A Green Revolution from below? Science and technology for global food security and poverty alleviation
Institution: Wageningen University
Short Title: A Green Revolution from below? Science and technology for global food security and poverty alleviation

Abstract: (excerpt)

If – in a world of top-down institutions, top-down grants and top-down assessment – a proposal for People's Science is now seriously debated I will have fulfilled my mission in Wageningen over the past 17 years. I have four points to make. (p 18-19)

Build partnerships around tasks and task groups
Support decentralized crop development partnerships
Experiment with unsupervised learning
Improve training and support facilities for a new Green Revolution from below

Research Notes: I include this one as an alternative viewpoint of someone who worked a lot with farmer innovation, but who is not particularly well-represented in the extension literature.

URL: http://edepot.wur.nl/165231


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 8
Author: M. Robinson
Year: 2007
Title: Does Decentralisation Improve Equity and Efficiency in Public Service Delivery Provision?
Journal: IDS Bulletin
Volume: 38
Issue: 1
Pages: 7-17

Short Title: Does Decentralisation Improve Equity and Efficiency in Public Service Delivery Provision?

ISSN: 1759-5436

DOI: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.2007.tb00333.x

Abstract: (partial intro) This article focuses on substantive development outcomes, centred on how far decentralisation produces improvements in service delivery for the poor, drawing on evidence concerning equity and efficiency and the political and institutional conditions which give rise to these outcomes. The literature on democratic decentralisation and service delivery generally falls into two distinct categories: opportunities for enhanced popular participation and increased accountability of local authorities, or on forms of service delivery involving a plurality of actors.

Research Notes: Provides a review of the assumptions behind decentralization that usually pervade the development discourse, but also provides a review of the literature how those assumptions have played out. Notes the preconditions/conditions that need to come with decentralization.

This is not just limited to ag decentralization, and covers multiple geographic regions.

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.2007.tb00333.x


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 11
Author: M. Robinson
Year: 2007
Title: Introduction: Decentralising Service Delivery? Evidence and Policy Implications
Journal: IDS Bulletin
Volume: 8
Issue: 1
Pages: 1-6

Short Title: Introduction: Decentralising Service Delivery? Evidence and Policy Implications

ISSN: 1759-5436

DOI: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.2007.tb00332.x

Abstract: (partial intro)Improvements in democratic accountability and better service delivery outcomes are not mutually exclusive but can have complementary and mutually reinforcing effects. The problem is that decentralisation policy initiatives are often premised on strengthening local democracy without considering fully the conditions under which service delivery improvements can be achieved. The challenge confronting proponents of decentralisation is that the evidence to support the case for decentralised service delivery is fragmentary and inconsistent and the conditions for successful devolution of services are poorly understood. The articles in this IDS Bulletin seek to throw light on these issues by marshalling evidence on service delivery outcomes from a range of developing countries that are engaged in a process of democratic decentralisation and highlighting the implications for designing reforms that maximise the prospects for improvements in the quality and access of services for the poor

Research Notes: This is the introductory article in an IDS journal devoted to decentralization. I did not include every single article, and this entry gives an overview of what the journal contains. If any of the articles mentioned looks particularly interesting, and I've not included it, let me know and I can download it.

Mentions some particularities that should be taken into account before expecting decentralization to take hold.

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.2007.tb00332.x



Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 10
Author: J. G. Salazar
Year: 2007
Title: Decentralisation, Politics and Service Delivery in Mexico
Journal: IDS Bulletin
Volume: 38
Issue: 1
Pages: 70-76

Short Title: Decentralisation, Politics and Service Delivery in Mexico

ISSN: 1759-5436

DOI: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.2007.tb00338.x

Abstract: (partial intro) This article suggests that although sub-national governments now have a more significant role in service delivery than they had two decades ago, service delivery has not necessarily improved. Despite governments closer to citizens having more political and financial capacities to provide public services to those citizens, the mechanisms to make these public 
officials accountable are weak, undermining the prospects of decentralisation for more equitable service provision.

Research Notes: Not specifically about agriculture. Provides a case study of decentralization in Mexico, mostly re the health and education sector.

Conclusion: "The decentralisation process has reshaped the political dynamics within the federal arrangement, therefore impacting on the performance of subnational governments. In particular, decentralisation of political and fiscal resources to sub-national units of government – through previously dormant constitutional powers – drove a new redistribution of power within the different political actors in the federal system (Gibson 2004). It is true that subnational governments have gained as a result of
decentralisation, however its pro-poor potential is yet to be seen. It seems that decentralisation has shown some progress in Mexico, but it can only fulfil its promise of greater efficiency and responsiveness if local governments can be held accountable, especially to low-income citizens.

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.2007.tb00338.x



Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 7
Author: I. Scoones and J. Thompson
Year: 2011
Title: The Politics of Seed in Africa's Green Revolution: Alternative Narratives and Competing Pathways
Journal: IDS Bulletin
Volume: 42
Issue: 4
Pages: 1-23
Short Title: The Politics of Seed in Africa's Green Revolution: Alternative Narratives and Competing Pathways

ISSN: 1759-5436

DOI: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.2011.00232.x

Abstract: As calls for a ‘Uniquely African Green Revolution’ gain momentum, a focus on seeds and seed systems is rising up the agricultural policy agenda. Much of the debate stresses the technological or market dimensions, with substantial investments being made in seed improvement and the development of both public and private sector delivery systems. But this misses out the political economy of policy processes behind this agenda: who wins, who loses, and whose interests are being served? Drawing on lessons from country case studies from Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe, as well as insights from a set of complementary studies of cross-cutting themes, this article assesses the evolution of seed system research and development programmes and processes across the region. By examining how the contrasting politics and different configurations of interests affect the way cereal seed systems operate, it highlights opportunities for reshaping the terms of the debate and opening up alternative pathways to more sustainable and socially just seed systems.

Research Notes: I include this one because it provides a reality check to the overall broad prescriptions of the main voices in agricultural development today. It notes that the promises of public-private partnerships have been slow to materialize. It takes a slightly different tack on the introduction of GR technologies, recognizing that it's not that these technologies have not been introduced in the past (the main narrative being that the GR 'bypassed' Africa), but rather they have not taken hold. Authors contend that in the new approaches, which rest heavily on decentralization, the proper questions should be asked of the sociopolitical environment.

P. 6 "Everyone, it seems, agrees. From diverse perspectives, and involving droves of policy experts – 400 claimed for the IAASTD (2009) and another 400 for the UK Foresight report (2011) to start with – a consensus appears to have been brokered. Feeding the world – or feeding Africa –is possible with a neat combination of technological innovation and market discipline,

with public-private partnerships built across diverse state and non-state actors (cf. Godfray et al. 2009). But of course people don’t agree. The consensus, if there is one, is superficial and therefore very fragile."

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.2011.00232.x



Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 9
Author: SLSA Team
Year: 2003
Title: 7. Decentralisations in Practice in Southern Africa
Journal: IDS Bulletin
Volume: 34
Issue: 3
Pages: 79-96
Short Title: 7. Decentralisations in Practice in Southern Africa

ISSN: 1759-5436

DOI: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.2003.tb00079.x

Abstract: (partial intro) The Sustainable Livelihoods in Southern Africa programme case studies illustrate that decentralisation is rarely a singular process but consists of multiple processes that occur in different spheres of activity, taking o n a variety of
forms which may push outcomes in different directions For example, tn any one area we may observe attempts at local government reform, creating a new tier of locally-elected councils, alongside an array of decentralised committee structures including catchment, borehole, grazing, woodlot, or wildlife management committees or councils, with varying forms of membership and authority.

Research Notes: Takes a critical look at decentralization and the agendas that drive it.

Driven by 3 discourses: Democratic decentralizaiton, decentralization for efficient service delivery, project based/sector focused committees.

Looks at decentralization in several African countries. Present research that illustrates what decentralization means to regular people and how they access resources, as well as the impact of decentralization on livelihoods. Notes factors that should be taken into account before embarking on decentralization projects.

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.2003.tb00079.x


Reference Type: Generic
Record Number: 3
Author: B. E. Swanson

Year: 2010

Title: Changing Extension Paradigms within a Rapidly Changing Global Economy

Publisher: Power Point presentation

Short Title: Changing Extension Paradigms within a Rapidly Changing Global Economy

URL: http://tinyurl.com/8ybz4yt
Comments